Attracting Purple Martins in order to watch them as they mate up, pick nesting cavities, and raise their young will require patience and education for most "want to be landlords".
An understanding of their nesting habitat requirements, what type of housing and where to place your Martin house or gourds are important factors in getting these "martin birds" to nest in your backyard.
One of the most enjoyable experiences in birding for me was being able to finally attract Purple Martins to my own backyard.
Not an easy task as I didn't really have the best habitat. I hope the following information will help get you started on your way.
If you're serious about attracting Purple Martins you're going to have to get serious about Starlings and House Sparrows.
It's important that you learn all you can. Simply placing a house up may be enough to attract wrens to your backyard but, doing the same for Martins, and expecting things to work out the same ain't gonna happen.
House Sparrows and Starlings are non-native species and compete for nesting sites with other native cavity-nesting birds.
Our native species haven't had time to develop defenses against these two species, and are often destroyed in attacks for the nest.
It will be your job to prevent them from nesting in your Purple Martin housing. The truth is, you cannot allow any other species to nest in your Martin house.
This includes Bluebirds, Tree Swallows, and Wrens. Martins will not fight other species to nest in housing that has never been occupied.
Following time-tested practices will give you the best chance at attracting Purple Martins to your backyard.
Two resources I highly recommend for learning more about these birds are: Enjoying Purple Martins More by Richard Wolinski a short booklet with a lot of helpful information.
The second resource I recommend is Stokes: Purple Martin Book by Donald & Lillian Stokes. Don't skip this part. The more information you have, the better chance you'll have to attract Purple Martins.
To attract Purple Martins, begin by locating your housing in the center of the largest open spot available, at least 30 and not more than 100 feet from human housing.
So many people fail to attract Purple Martins because of placing their houses too close to trees and too far from human habitation.
There should be no trees within 40 feet of the nesting site and preferably further away.
In the South, (probably because martins are more numerous) you can get away with placing your houses within 25 feet of trees.
Distance from trees should be measured from the outside of branches and not from tree trunks.
The height of the martin house or gourd rack should be in the range of 10-15 feet with 12 - 14 about average.
Don't attach wires to the house or pole. Predators can use them to get to the birds.
Don't give up on attracting these birds simply because you have a tree around. If you've got a couple of long flyways you may still be able to get them to nest.
My own setup is in an area most would say didn't have a chance. I have to admit, it took 4 years for me to attract martins and I worked hard at it.
As you begin to attract Purple Martins to your nesting site, you'll need to take precautions to protect them from predators.
Some of the predators are raccoons, snakes, squirrels, and owls. The use of baffles on the pole can detour predators that climb.
In the South where fire ants are numerous, try keeping a ring of petroleum jelly on the pole. Don't kid yourself, snakes can climb just about anything, so, wrap bird netting around the pole.
Snakes will have to be cut out of it but you'll still have your birds. If a colony gets raided by a predator, the whole colony may relocate and never come back.
It's been said that adults are rarely attracted to new breeding sites, and while mostly true, last season's second-year unmated birds come back as adults and may start new colonies.
That's exactly how my 16-year-old colony got started. An unmated male visited several times and the following season found a female and nested in my housing.
Once you've attracted Purple Martins that nest successfully, you'll be able to attract them back and add more with time.
The first pairs have to experience nesting success or they won't return.
Sub-adult martins begin arriving about 4 weeks after the first adults show up in an area. So for new colonies, if you see adults at other established sites, you can expect the second-year birds in roughly four weeks.
As stated earlier, these were born the previous year and will start most new colonies in new housing.
Since the first-time nesters arrive later than the adult scouts, it's best to keep your houses closed until it's time for them to arrive. Otherwise, you'll be giving House Sparrows and Starlings a 4 - 8 week head start.
On the other hand, if you're serious and control Starlings and House Sparrows by trapping or shooting, you can open your housing sooner.
Sometimes old houses are damaged or people move and take their martin housing with them.
This gives everyone around a 50-mile radius a chance to start or expand their colonies. This is good for new sites.
I warn you though if you don't have the stomach for dealing with the non-native species you'll have a much more difficult time attracting Purple Martins.
Migration is a staggered occurrence. Birds arrive for 8-12 weeks in the north, and 16-20 weeks in the south.
The first birds to make it back nest in the south and have been recorded as early as December in Florida.
Martins can arrive and begin nesting through the end of June throughout their range. So keep your housing ready, don't close it up or let other birds use it.
Even if you get no birds this season. Martins bring their young around other housing throughout the season and these young may choose your housing next season.
If you haven't already purchased your housing, drive around and see what other people are doing. Offering the same type others in your area are using may help you get Purple Martins.
One of the best solutions is to offer 1 house with 4 gourds hung below the house.
My main advice here is if you're not successful in your first year, do not keep changing your martin housing especially if you had visitors.
I've known people that have had to wait years to get Purple Martins simply because they constantly changed their housing each season.
Returning Martins were confused by the changes every year and would not nest in the new housing.
Choose a pole that at a minimum, telescopes or better yet is equipped with a winch or rope and pulley, and housing that has easy access to the compartments.
An easy-to-manage system will make removing House Sparrow and Starling nests easier, giving you a better chance at attracting Martins.
You'll need to be able to monitor each nest of martins in your housing to provide assistance in certain situations.
Easy access makes for better monitoring and even faster end-of-season cleaning.
Gourds are available both as natural gourds and commercially made plastic gourds.
I use the commercial gourds as they never rot, are easy to keep clean, and are accepted by the martins as easily as the naturals.
All of mine have tunnel entrances with Starling-resistant entries.
I choose to use gourds and no other type of housing (a personal preference). You can see mine in the videos on this page.
Placing a handful or two of dried white pine needles, dry twigs, or straw may be helpful in attracting Purple Martins.
A supply of mud close by can be helpful to those of the species that use mud to place around the opening. Not all use mud.
When attracting Purple Martins, the color of housing should be considered. Houses and gourds should be white, or a light color.
White housing seems to attract the martin birds best while reflecting sunlight. Temperature extremes can be detrimental to young birds.
In years past the floor dimensions have been 6 inches by 6 inches, and many Martins have fledged from those small cavities.
It's accepted that larger cavities offer a better outcome for the birds and they seem to be preferred over smaller housing.
A nest cavity 6 to 7 inches wide and 8 - 13 deep appears to be the sweet spot. Possibly due to the fact, the added depth offers better protection against a predator's reach.
A round entrance hole of 2-1/8 inches is the preferred size opening although they will use an opening in the 1-3/4 - 2-3/8 range.
Due to Starling's competition, manufacturers are making houses and gourds with Starling-resistant entrance holes, "SREH". These may be a crescent shape or a host of other shapes.
These types of openings are highly recommended in areas with large Starling populations. This would include most cities.
Some farmlands have less pressure from Starlings but no area is free from them.
I would caution using round openings due to starlings. You'll have enough problems dealing with house sparrows.
Some people have had success attracting Purple Martins to nest at a new site by playing the Dawnsong.
This CD is available from the PMCA. Played early in the morning it's said to at least attract them to visit housing.
It may not get them to nest, but it may get them to take a look at your housing and that's a start.
I've played mine at all times of the day when I've been outside and it does attract martins.
You should stop playing the CD when Purple Martins are around. You don't need to use it if you have a pair nesting. The birds will attract new birds.
Don't give up because others have martins and you don't. Closing too soon may keep you from ever becoming a landlord.
Keep your houses open until late August, as this year's fledglings will be searching for next year's breeding sites in late summer.
When you do close down your housing, give it a close inspection. Remove all nesting material and scrub with a 10% bleach solution. Let it air dry before storing it for the winter.
Take care of any repairs now so you'll be ready in the spring.
If you choose to leave it out for the winter, be sure and plug the entrance hole, otherwise, House Sparrows and Starlings will begin to use it in late winter making it impossible to get them to leave in the spring.
This is just a basic guide to attracting Purple Martins. Consider ordering one of the books mentioned and joining The Purple Martin Conservation Association to get the most out of being a Landlord. PMCA It's free to join.
When it comes to attracting Purple Martins, one has to be willing to never give up. Some get them in a year or two and others may take twenty or more years.
You'll have to decide how much patience you have. It took me four years to attract Purple Martins and 2023 will be my 17th year hosting Purple Martins.
A hobby that has given me more joy than I ever expected. This year 2023 will be my 16th year hosting Purple Martins in my backyard.